Both direct quotes and paraphrases require in-text, or parenthetical citations, to follow it. All sources used for a project are found on the Works Cited list, which is generally the last item in a project. The author is generally the first item in a citation unless the source does not have an author.
The first author is in reverse order, add a comma and the word "and", then place the second author in standard form. Follow their names with a period. Place the first author in reverse order, place a comma afterwards, and then add the Latin phrase, et al. Citations do not need to always start with the name of the author. Directors, actors, translators, editors, and illustrators are common individuals to have at the beginning. Again, only include their name in place of the author if your research focuses on that specific individual.
To include someone other than the author at the beginning of the citation, place their name in reverse order, add a comma afterwards, and then the role of that individual followed by a comma. Created by Michael Hirst, History Channel, The Promise of Reason: Studies in the New Rhetoric. Follow it with the title of the full source, in italics, and then add a comma.
This second portion is called the container. Containers hold the sources. Vance, Erik, and Erika Larsen.
Wondering what to do with subtitles? Place a colon in between the title and subtitle. Both parts are written in title capitalization form. Simon and Schuster, If the source does not have a title, give a brief description and do not use quotation marks or italics. For email messages, the subject of the email is the title.
Place this information in quotation marks. It is possible for a source to sit in a second, or larger container. A journal article sits in its first container, which is the journal itself, but it can also sit in a larger container, such as a database.
Then it can sit in its next container, which could be Spotify or iTunes. It is important to include the second container because the content on one container can be different than another container. Title of Second Container , Other contributors, version, number, Publisher, publication date, location. In most cases, for the second container, only the title of the second container and the location is needed.
Sallis, James, et al. Google Books , books. In MLA citing, when there are other individuals besides the author who play a significant role in your research, include them in this section of the citation. Other contributors can also be added to help individuals locate the source themselves.
You can add as many other contributors as you like. If it follows a comma, the role should start with a lowercase letter. The Physics of Sorrow. Translated by Angela Rodel, Open Letter, Sources can come in different versions. There are numerous bible versions, books can come in versions such as numbered editions , even movies and songs can have special versions.
When a source indicates that it is different than other versions, include this information in the citation. This will help readers locate the exact source that you used for your project. This includes volume and issue numbers for journal articles, volume or series numbers for books, comic book numbers, and television episode numbers, to name a few.
When including volume and issue numbers, use the abbreviation vol. Zhai, Xiaojuan, and Jingjing Wang. A Survey of Chinese Academic Libraries.
ProQuest Research Library , ezproxy. Lewis, season 1, episode 2, Warner Bros. The production of the source is done by the publisher. The publisher is placed in the citation before the date of publication. Include the publisher for any source type except for websites when the name of the publisher is the same as the name of the website.
It is also not necessary to include the name of publishers for newspapers, magazines, or journal articles, since the name of the publisher is generally insignificant.
When sources have more than one publisher that share responsibility for the production of the source, place a slash between the names of the publishers. In terms of display, it does not matter if the date is written in a specific order. Make sure to use the same format for all citations.
When multiple dates are shown on the source, include the date that is most relevant to your work and research. The location refers to the place where the source can be found. This can be in the form of a URL, page number, disc number, or physical place. Remove the beginning of the web address as it is not necessary to include http: For page numbers, use the abbreviation p. The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears on the title page.
For a book written by two authors, list them in order as they appear on the title page. The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be italicized and followed by a period. If the book has a subtitle, the main title should be followed by a colon unless the main title ends with a question mark or exclamation point. The publication information can generally be found on the title page of the book.
If it is not available there, it may also be found on the copyright page. State the name of the publisher. If you are citing a specific page range from the book, include the page s at the end of the citation.
If you have to cite a specific edition of a book later than the first, see the section below on citing edited books. Title of Website , URL. Women on Electronic Music and Sound.
If your book is an edition later than the first, you should note this in the citation. Ferraro, Gary, and Susan Andreatta, editors.
Fosslien, Liz, and Mollie West. The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears on the website. For a page with two or more authors, list them in the order as they appear on the website. If the article was written by a news service or an organization, include it in the author position. The page title should be placed within quotation marks. Place a period after the page title within the quotation marks. The page title is followed by the name of the website, which is italicized, followed by a comma.
Include the sponsoring institution or publisher, along with a comma, after the website title. If the name of the publisher is the same as the name as the website, do not include the publisher information in your citation.
Next, state the publication date of the page. In some cases, a specific date might not be available, and the date published may only be specific to a month or even year. Provide whatever date information is available. End the citation with the URL. End the entire citation with a period.
Looking for an MLA formatter to create your website citations quickly and easily? The most basic entry for a journal consists of the author name s , article title, journal name, volume number, issue number, year published, page numbers, name of website or database, and URL or Direct Object Identifier DOI.
The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears in the journal. For an article written by two authors, list them in order as they appear in the journal.
The article title should be placed within quotation marks. Unless the article title ends with a punctuation mark, place a period after the article title within the quotation marks. The article title is followed by the name of the journal, which is italicized. Jones, Robert, et al. Database Life , www. Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams. Begin the citation with the name of the speaker. State the date on which the lecture was conducted, followed by a comma. The most basic entry for a newspaper consists of the author name s , article title, newspaper name, publication date, page numbers, and sometimes a URL, if found online.
Volume numbers, issue numbers, and the names of publishers are omitted from newspaper citations. Title of Database if applicable , URL. The full article title should be placed within quotations. Next, state the name of the newspaper in italics. Towards the end of the citation, include the page numbers on which the article appears, along with a period. Cite all inclusive page numbers — if the article spans pages that are not consecutive, cite only the first page, followed by a plus sign.
The most basic entry for an encyclopedia consists of the author name s , article title, encyclopedia name, publisher, and year published.
Notice that the name of the publisher was not included in the example above. Only include the name of the publisher if it differs from the name of the encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica is the name of the encyclopedia AND the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include Encyclopedia Britannica twice in the citation. If the encyclopedia arranges articles alphabetically, do not cite the page number s or number of volumes. After the publication year, include the page numbers on which the article appears, along with a period.
Last name, First name. For example, "7 Nov. Danielle Cort has been a freelance writer since , specializing in psychology, health, education and parenting. She has published articles in "Family" magazine. Before becoming a freelance writer, Cort worked in the public policy research sector, conducting research, creating surveys and budgets. She holds a Doctor of Philosophy in social psychology from the University of Massachusetts.
Use our citation tool to automatically generate your bibliography for any website. How to Reference a Painting in an Essay. Accessed 14 September Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. Tips The first line of your citation should be flushed left. Every subsequent line for the same citation will be indented. References Cornell University Library: Electronic Sources Web Publications.
How to Cite a Newspaper in MLA 7 Newspaper – A daily or weekly publication that contains news; often featuring articles on political events, crime, business, art, entertainment, society, and sports.
The Modern Language Association, or MLA, produces a style guide that is used by many liberal arts and humanities to cite sources and format papers. Citing sources using the correct style not only ensures that your research paper has a uniform style but that those reading your paper can easily identify the work you are citing.
Citation Machine™ uses the 8th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 17th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian). Works cited entries for periodical sources include three main elements—the author of the article, the title of the article, and information about the magazine, newspaper, or journal. MLA uses the generic term “container” to refer to any print or digital venue (a website or print journal, for example) in which an essay or article may be included.
MLA newspaper citation tool will create the works cited entries by utilizing the correct MLA format. Newspaper MLA Works Cited General tips. Include date DO NOT include: volume or issue numbers; Do not use introductory articles when citing newspapers (e.g. Vancouver Sun not The Vancouver Sun).