Korea and Vietnam War. Women went to work and soon over forty percent of the working population were women in important professions, upper level executive jobs and all the other job positions - including jobs that were once only done by men. The maps of the world changed as the borders of nations and names of countries were re-designated. New globes had to be made. Europe was improved with the new economic foundations and new world trade agreements. Tourism to Europe rose.
Children were taught not to ever have another world war and why the 2 wars were started and how to prevent another world war while the Cold War Raged. Children grew to be teens and young adults and revolted over the hypocrisy and wars that should not be fought; namely the Vietnam war. What effect did world war 2 have on children? I guess it affected them in loads of ways. First mostly all of them were evacuated to the country side, or in some cases to Canada on massive ships that rarely ever made it safely back to England.
They were also affected school- wise, as many of the male teachers had to be pulled up to go into war. Other ways they could have been affected, is by rationing and their homes being destroyed. What were the effect of World War 2 in Mexico? As a close neighboring country to the US, they shared the benefits of US industrialization.
What are the effects of World War 2? The biggest effect was that the USSR gained control over a huge part of Europe this in turn led to the cold war, Which meant that war equipment could contineu to be made without having to actually use it in effect the population of the most productive part of the world became the slaves of weapons manufacturers. This of coarse was not the only effect of WW2 but it is one way of looking at it. Well there was a man by the name of Adolf Hitler who stood up and said "why are we going to let them treat us this way".
Even though he wasnt ellected Minister of Germany in , when came the prime minister Paul von Hindenburg was dying and gave him power of Germany since he was 2nd in the election. Hitler destroyed the democracy of Germany and made a secret army. What long term effects did World War 2 have? The long-term effects of World War II have been many and varied. The most important of these, however, was the rise of the UnitedStates as the world's great super-power a status which it canstill be said to hold today , along with a rival for that positionin the U.
This rivalry played out in the Cold War thatdominated the latter half of the 20th century, defininggeo-political affairs for several generations and maintaining anever-present threat of nuclear destruction.
What are the effects of the World War 2? World War II had many effects on the world. The United States movedfrom being an isolationist nation to the "world's police force," asit still is today. As aresult of the cold war Europe was diveded between the western democratic nations and the eastern communist nations. Germanywas also divided east and west. Germany was not allowed to hold amilitary either. The nation of Israel was set up as a homage forJewish refugees from the war.
These documents stressedthat Communism needed to be contained and it was America's duty tocontain it. They also stressed the "Domino Theory," which believedif one nation became communist, that all other nations around itwould also succumb. The United Nations was also set up as a resultof the war. What effects did World War 2 have on the world? What was the effect of communism on World War 2? How were Negros effected in World War 2?
In Nazi Germany under the Third Reich, Africans were sterilized and persecuted against as they were not Aryans and a danger to the mission of creating a pure, Germanic society. What effect did World War 2 have on Britain? Great Britain was bombed heavily during WW2, this was known as the Blitz where German air crafts flew over the English Channel to drop bombs on major cities and industries. The Britta ins used a system called 'Black out' to confuse the pilots so that they could not see the city lights on the ground.
Brittain's hid in Air Raid Shelters to protect themselves from the bombs these were metal containers dug slightly into the ground to protect them from the bomb being dropped around them.. Brittain's were also given Ration books for German ships were sinking their supply ships, this caused a shortage of food. People were also recommended to grow a lot of their own food, lots of land was turned into farms..
Thousands of Britain's men died fighting on the boarders of France fighting Germany. After the war had been won, Britain suffered great losses and had to build up their economy for lots of their industries had been bombed.
At this time it was called a Cold War for neither side could fight due to the neuclear bomb. If one side dropped a bomb so would the other, there where enough neuclear bombs to blow up the world 7 times over!!! Did the UN have an effect on world war 2? The UN was created too late in to have had an effect on WW2. What was the biggest effect of World War 2? There are 2 massively important factors:. The treatment of the Jews in Europe..
The advent of Atomic Nuclear warfare. What are the longterm effects of World War 2? The answer of this question needs lots of minds with different opinions. I think the main long term effect is that the world will watch carefully and intervene as much as possible in order to stop any evil mind, like Hitler's, from acquiring power that can threat the whole world.
Were World War 2 posters effective? They kept the public aware of the struggle that we were fight for. What was the causes and effects of world war 2? Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany's invasion of Poland, the causes of the war are more complex Including the follwoing: Germany was totally defeated, and the Nazi regime brought down.
Its leaders were tried for crimes against humanity at Nuremberg, the former site of Nazi propaganda triumphs. Hitler escaped trial and execution by committing suicide in his Berlin bunker at the end of the war. German cities were in ruins from a massive bombing campaign. Germany was divided into 4 zones of occupation by the victorious powers, pending a more permanent political settlement.
Japan also was in ruins from extensive bombing. Prominent military leaders were tried and convicted of war crimes, but the emperor was allowed to retain his position. Japan was temporarily placed under U.
England was devastated by the war, having experienced extensive bombing during the blitz by the Germans. The economy depended for recovery upon aid from the United States. England rapidly phased out most of its remaining imperial holdings in the years immediately following the war. France had not experienced the enormous human losses sustained in the First World War, but would have to recover from the effects of Nazi occupation. Retribution was taken upon collaborators. Like England, France would be compelled to dismantle its colonial empire in the years following the war.
This was a particularly traumatic and drawn out process for the French, in Algeria and in Vietnam where they fought prolonged and bitter wars in an attempt to maintain their colonial control. England and France no longer held a status of power comparable either to the United States or the Soviet Union. The Russian people had suffered immeasurably during the war, and western Russia was devastated by the land warfare which was primarily on Russian territory.
But, in the process of defeating the Germans, the Russians had built a large and powerful army, which occupied most of Eastern Europe at the end of the war. The great resources and population of Russia assured that the Soviet Union would be, along with the United States, one of two super-powers.
The depression was brought decisively to an end, and new industrial complexes were built all over the United States. Spared the physical destruction of war, the U. After 4 years of military buildup, the U. The position of the United States as world leader was now more obvious than ever. How did World War 2 effect the world? Jewish stop Adolf Hitlier from killing all the Jews because of religious value. Fourtenaly,the Allies Americans came and wen't to arrest the Nazis.
Hitlier killed himself due to him being in jail for life. After news that HItlier commited suicied,all the Jews were set free. Now all the Jews are alive: How did landforms effect World War 2? I have no idea!! Please help me on my project I'm doing! United States and it's alies were mostly invading forces so the initial invations were affected greatly by land forms.
Beaches were low in level and from the higher ground formations were the enemy entrenched thus making this harder for the alies to reach the targeted point with many loses on the alied side. What were the effects of aircraft in World War 2? Well, considering that us in the United States wouldn't have entered the second world war unless the allies needed us to, the Japanese bombed us at Pearl Harbor, so that's a big thing right there.
It could have changed the entire outcome. World War 2 short term effects? The short term effects were on Britain, Japan and Germany and the islands of the Pacific. Okinawa became a main US staging point. The US covered large areas of it with military bases and continued to occupy it until , years after the end of the occupation of the main islands. The bases still remain. The Allies collected reparations from Japan. To further remove Japan as a potential future military threat, the Far Eastern Commission decided to de-industrialise Japan, with the goal of reducing Japanese standard of living to what prevailed between and In early , the Licensed Agencies for Relief in Asia were formed and permitted to supply Japanese with food and clothes.
In April the Johnston Committee Report recommended that the economy of Japan should be reconstructed due to the high cost to US taxpayers of continuous emergency aid. Japan provided no special assistance to these people until In the Winter War of —, the Soviet Union invaded neutral Finland and annexed some of its territory. From until , Finland aligned itself with Nazi Germany in a failed effort to regain lost territories from the Soviets. Finland retained its independence following the war but remained subject to Soviet-imposed constraints in its domestic affairs.
In June , the Soviet governments of the Baltic states carried out mass deportations of "enemies of the people"; as a result, many treated the invading Nazis as liberators when they invaded only a week later. The Atlantic Charter promised self-determination to peoples deprived of it during the war. With the return of Soviet troops at the end of the war, the Forest Brothers mounted a guerrilla war. This continued until the mids. An estimated one million military and civilian Filipinos were killed from all causes; of these , were listed as killed in seventy-two war crime events.
According to a United States analysis released years after the war, U. As a result of the new borders drawn by the victorious nations, large populations suddenly found themselves in hostile territory.
Poland lost the Kresy region about half of its pre-War territory and received most of Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line , including the industrial regions of Silesia.
The German state of the Saar was temporarily a protectorate of France but later returned to German administration. As set forth at Potsdam, approximately 12 million people were expelled from Germany, including seven million from Germany proper, and three million from the Sudetenland.
During the war, the United States government interned approximately , Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States in the wake of Imperial Japan 's attack on Pearl Harbor. After the war, some internees chose to return to Japan, while most remained in North America. The Soviet Union expelled at least 2 million Poles from east of the new border approximating the Curzon Line. This estimate is uncertain as both the Polish Communist government and the Soviet government did not keep track of the number of expelled.
The number of Polish citizens inhabiting Polish borderlands Kresy region was about 13 million before World War II broke out according to official Polish statistics. Polish citizens killed in the war that originated from the Polish borderlands territory killed by both German Nazi regime and the Soviet regime or expelled to distant parts of Siberia were accounted as Russian, Ukrainian or Belarusian casualties of war in official Soviet historiography.
This fact imposes additional difficulties in making the correct estimation of the number of Polish citizens forcibly transferred after the war. Additionally, the Soviet Union transferred more than two million people within their own borders; these included Germans, Finns, Crimean Tatars , and Chechens.
As Soviet troops marched across the Balkans, they committed rapes and robberies in Romania , Hungary , Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Foreign reports of Soviet brutality were denounced [ by whom? Rapes also occurred under other occupation forces, though the majority were committed by Soviet troops.
This offensive attitude among our troops is not at all general, but the percentage is large enough to have given our Army a pretty black name, and we too are considered an army of rapists.
German soldiers left many war children behind in nations such as France and Denmark, which were occupied for an extended period.
After the war, the children and their mothers often suffered recriminations. In the first few weeks of the American military occupation of Japan, rape and other violent crime was widespread in naval ports like Yokohama and Yokosuka but declined shortly afterward. There were 1, reported rapes during the first 10 days of the occupation of Kanagawa prefecture.
Historians Eiji Takemae and Robert Ricketts state that "When US paratroopers landed in Sapporo, an orgy of looting, sexual violence, and drunken brawling ensued. Gang rapes and other sex atrocities were not infrequent" and some of the rape victims committed suicide. Eichelberger , the commander of the U.
Eighth Army, recorded that in the one instance when the Japanese formed a self-help vigilante guard to protect women from off-duty GIs, the Eighth Army ordered armored vehicles in battle array into the streets and arrested the leaders, and the leaders received long prison terms. A former prostitute recalled that as soon as Australian troops arrived in Kure in early , they "dragged young women into their jeeps, took them to the mountain, and then raped them.
I heard them screaming for help nearly every night'. Such behavior was commonplace, but news of criminal activity by Occupation forces was quickly suppressed. Rape committed by U. Soon after the U. At the time, there were only women, children and old people in the village, as all the young men had been mobilized for the war. Soon after landing, the marines "mopped up" the entire village, but found no signs of Japanese forces.
Taking advantage of the situation, they started "hunting for women" in broad daylight and those who were hiding in the village or nearby air raid shelters were dragged out one after another. According to Toshiyuki Tanaka, 76 cases of rape or rape-murder were reported during the first five years of the American occupation of Okinawa.
However, he claims this is probably not the true figure, as most cases were unreported. The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate even before the war was over,  when Stalin , Roosevelt, and Churchill exchanged a heated correspondence over whether the Polish government-in-exile , backed by Roosevelt and Churchill, or the Provisional Government , backed by Stalin, should be recognised.
A number of allied leaders felt that war between the United States and the Soviet Union was likely. Stalin responded by charging that co-existence between communist countries and the West was impossible. Due to the rising tension in Europe and concerns over further Soviet expansion, American planners came up with a contingency plan code-named Operation Dropshot in It considered possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union and its allies in order to counter a Soviet takeover of Western Europe, the Near East and parts of Eastern Asia that they anticipated would begin around In response, the US would saturate the Soviet Union with atomic and high-explosive bombs, and then invade and occupy the country.
The approach entailed a major buildup of US nuclear forces and a corresponding reduction in America's non-nuclear ground and naval strength. In Greece , civil war broke out in between Anglo-American-supported royalist forces and communist-led forces , with the royalist forces emerging as the victors.
On 12 March , to gain Congressional support for the aid, President Truman described the aid as promoting democracy in defence of the " free world ", a principle that became known as the Truman Doctrine. The US sought to promote an economically strong and politically united Western Europe to counter the threat posed by the Soviet Union. This was done openly using tools such as the European Recovery Program , which encouraged European economic integration.
The International Authority for the Ruhr , designed to keep German industry down and controlled, evolved into the European Coal and Steel Community , a founding pillar of the European Union. The United States also worked covertly to promote European integration, for example using the American Committee on United Europe to funnel funds to European federalist movements. However, without the manpower and industrial output of West Germany no conventional defence of Western Europe had any hope of succeeding.
The attempt was dashed when the French Parliament rejected it. In Asia, the surrender of Japanese forces was complicated by the split between East and West as well as by the movement toward national self-determination in European colonial territories. As agreed at the Yalta Conference , the Soviet Union went to war against Japan three months after the defeat of Germany.
The Soviet forces invaded Manchuria. This was the end of the Manchukuo puppet state and all Japanese settlers were forced to leave China. The Soviet Union dismantled the industrial base in Manchuria built up by the Japanese in the preceding years. Manchuria also became a base for the Communist Chinese forces because of the Soviet presence.
After the war, the Kuomintang KMT party led by generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and the Communist Chinese forces resumed their civil war , which had been temporarily suspended when they fought together against Japan.
The fight against the Japanese occupiers had strengthened popular support among the Chinese for the Communist guerrilla forces while it weakened the KMT, who depleted their strength fighting a conventional war. Full-scale war between the opposing forces broke out in June The KMT forces retreated to the island of Taiwan in Hostilities had largely ceased in Intermittent military clashes occurred between the PRC and Taiwan from Taiwan unilaterally declared the civil war over in , but no formal peace treaty or truce exists and the PRC officially sees Taiwan as a breakaway province that rightfully belongs to it and has expressed its opposition to Taiwanese independence.
Even so, tensions between the two states has decreased over time for example with the Chen-Chiang summits From this point, the relations between them have improved over time although some tension and rivalry remain even with the end of the Cold War and the PRC's distancing from the Communist ideology.
At the Yalta Conference , the Allies agreed that an undivided post-war Korea would be placed under four-power multinational trusteeship. After Japan's surrender, this agreement was modified to a joint Soviet-American occupation of Korea. Korea, formerly under Japanese rule , and which had been partially occupied by the Red Army following the Soviet Union's entry into the war against Japan, was divided at the 38th parallel on the orders of the US War Department.
Hodge , enlisted many former Japanese administrative officials to serve in this government. Simultaneously, the Soviets enabled a build-up of heavy armaments to pro-communist forces in the north. It culminated in the north invading the south, start of the Korean War two years later. Labour and civil unrest broke out in the British colony of Malaya in A state of emergency was declared by the colonial authorities in with the outbreak of acts of terrorism.
In , communist leader Chin Peng reopened hostilities, culminating in a second emergency that lasted until The communist-controlled common front Viet Minh supported by the Allies was formed among the Vietnamese in the colony in to fight for the independence of Vietnam, against both the Japanese and prewar French powers.
After the Vietnamese Famine of support for the Viet Minh was bolstered as the front launched a rebellion, sacking rice warehouses and urging the Vietnamese to refuse to pay taxes. Because the French colonial authorities started to hold secret talks with the Free French, the Japanese interned them 9 March When Japan surrendered in August, this created a power vacuum, and the Viet Minh took power in the August Revolution , declaring the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
As in any such analysis, there are issues of possible selection effects due to fertility, mortality, and migration that may have biased our estimates. The concern with selective fertility is that high-SES mothers reduced their fertility more during the war, which on average would lead to less healthy babies. SHARE does not contain variables on education of parents so we used instead our measure of childhood SES, acknowledging its possible endogenity.
Childhood SES was split at the median. In all three periods, fertility is highest in the low-SES groups. But differential changes by SES in fertility across these three time periods do not seem large enough to be producing our results. Comparing pre-War and during-War periods, there was about 0.
Similarly, comparing post-war to during-war periods, average fertility rose by about one child in both SES groups. Moreover, when we added childhood SES measures to our models, which should partly control for any selective fertility associated with the war, our estimates of the long-term effects of war did not change much.
Individuals in our analytical sample are those still alive in so they are a selected sample of the population that experienced WWII. To the extent that those more affected are less likely to have survived, our results should understate the full effects of war on long-term health and SES outcomes.
A more complicated issue concerns differential mortality by SES induced by the war. If mortality due to the War was much higher in low-SES groups whose health would have been worse anyway , we would further understate health effects of War. We examined data on age of death of father by SES by whether one lived in a war or non-war countries, and by whether you experienced the war as a child born before Once again, dividing SES at the median we found the following for the mean age of death of father.
Those born after who did die should be younger but the key comparison is differentials by SES. For non-war countries, we find that in comparing pre- and post that the age of death of father decreased by. Using the same comparison, the age of father fell by. Once again, this degree of selection does not seem large enough to be driving our results. Because of population shifts, especially inflows documented in figure 3 , we confined our analysis to the native-born in each country.
Among countries in our data, figure 3 shows that outflows were significant only in Czech Republic, Poland, and Germany. Since it was not encouraged by receiving countries, migration during and after the War was quite difficult in Europe. But there was some migration and one must allow for the possibility that selective migration may influence our estimates on war effects especially for these three countries. Of course, people could have temporarily left combat areas as combat was taking place but stayed inside the same country, which should lead to an understatement of combat effects.
We next turn to our estimates of how the micro pathway channels we highlighted above—hunger, dispossession, persecution, and the absence of father—are related to the experience of WWII.
They were also asked whether they had ever been victims of persecution because of their political beliefs, religion, nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or their background. Unfortunately, no time period for that persecution was asked. Finally, the absence of the father is defined as the absence of the biological father at the age of We also included in our models an additional possible pathway—whether a respondent received immunizations as a child.
A shows how micro channels are related to the experience of war. Males are both more likely to suffer from hunger and to be persecuted. The latter is what we expected given that mainly men were politically active during this period of time. Having experienced WWII increases the likelihood of experiencing hunger by about eight percentage points, 9 dispossession and persecution by one percentage point, the absence of a father by two percentage points. These estimates are large relative increases given baseline risks.
The experience of war was associated with a lower probability of immunization as a child, which is unsurprising given that this was wartime. This immunization result may be a pathway through which adult health eventually suffers. B our interest lies in whether the experience of combat is the mechanism that leads to war effects.
Once again, the size of these estimates is very similar to those obtained by the country wartime variable. The experience of hunger and absence of the father is somewhat stronger for our respondents who lived in a region strongly affected by combat 3—10 months of combat than for those in regions with none or only mild experience of combat.
However, differences are not large. In fact, we expect the death of men during wartime to not necessarily happen in their region of residence. Persecution is related to war per se, but not necessarily to an increased experience of combat. Thus, combat does come with an increased likelihood of hunger as, for example, was the case in the Dutch hunger winter. Also, combat led to local deaths of the civilian population, but military casualties and the deaths of fathers often occur far from the families affected by it.
Childhood SES is an index generated by factor analysis Mazzonna, For our analysis, we divide childhood SES status into three terciles and label those terciles low, middle, and high. Given the destructive scale of WW2 that included bombing that sometimes destroyed civilian homes and movement of men into the military, the possibility of such endogenity is clearly an important caveat to keep in mind.
We did re-estimate all models in tables 5 — 7 with these dummy variables for childhood SES terciles included and our estimates of the war barely changed. Our distributional results are contained in table 8.
All models continue to contain country and year of birth dummies and a dummy for male. We include both main effects for experiencing war and for childhood SES being either low or middle class. To identify distributional effects of war, we include a full set of interactions of the war with childhood SES. Once again, the results obtained are very similar whether we use the war country variable or our combat variable so table 8 only displays the results for the war variable.
The outcomes modeled are the same as those in tables 5 — 7 —adult health, adult SES, and channels of war. We first discuss main effects of childhood SES.
Compared to those in the high childhood SES group, those in the lowest one have higher levels of adult diabetes 3. The middle childhood SES group consistently lies between the bottom and top in terms of these adult health outcomes. These results conform to the general finding in the literature that childhood economic circumstances are very predictive of later-life adult economic and health outcomes Currie, ; Case et al.
Similarly, in accordance with the literature, higher childhood SES is associated with much higher levels of adult education, net worth, and life satisfaction, another indication of the strong economic transmission across generations in these outcomes.
The more novel results are in the third panel of table 8 which deals with the channels of war. The probability of being dispossessed was highest in the high childhood SES group, not surprising as there was more to capture.
Persecution was also highest in the high SES category, while obtaining childhood immunizations was highest in the lowest SES category.
Absent fathers were not strongly differentiated across SES categories. Finally, we examine differences in associations with war by childhood SES categories. For childhood SES by WWII interactions among the health variables, we find the negative health effects to be either neutral by SES categories or that the negative health effects are concentrated on the middle class as in the summary measure of self-reported health or concentrated in the middle and lower class as with heart disease, possibly reflecting the role of lifetime stress with that disease.
In contrast, we find very strong interactions of a negative middle class war interaction for many of our adult SES outcomes—education, and ln net worth. Life satisfaction decrements associated with the war were concentrated on the lower and middle class.
In terms of being ever married, the negative effects of the war were highest on the highest SES women and the lowest SES men. A summary of health and SES outcomes does suggest that the middle class suffered more due to the war with the lower class next in line. Finally, the length of time it takes to achieve a given level of education due to war expands the most for the low and middle class compared to the upper class. The bottom panel of table 8 shows that some pathways through which war operates are concentrated among the poorest households hunger and immunizations present for the middle class , some are concentrated among middle class dad absent , or the highest SES households dispossession.
Persecution was focused on the middle and upper classes. To conduct this analysis we use new data—SHARELIFE—that records not only adult outcomes in , but also contains retrospective data for salient aspects of the wartime experiences of respondents. We augment these data with historical information on how WWII affected individuals differently over time and across regions. Our data allow us to analyze which type of individuals were most affected, and by which channels.
Our analysis shows that experiencing war increased the probability of suffering from diabetes, depression, and with less certainty heart disease so that those experiencing war or combat have significantly lower self-rated health as adults. Experiencing war is also associated with less education and life satisfaction, and decreases the probability of ever being married for women, while increasing it for men.
We also analyze pathways through which these wartime effects took place and found strong effects for hunger, dispossession, persecution, childhood immunizations, and having an absent father. While a war of the magnitude of WWII affected all social classes to some degree, our evidence does suggest that the more severe effects were on the middle class with the lower class right below them in size of impact.
Population-based economic panels are relatively recent, but combining them with life-histories covering salient past personal and macro events opens up many new research opportunities of which WWII is only one illustration. This is especially so in Western Europe where the political and economic history of the past four decades is particularly rich and varied. Sarah Lehner and Johanna Sophie Quis provided excellent research assistance.
Smith is supported by various grants from NIA. Additional funding from the U. National Institute on Aging as well as from various national sources is gratefully acknowledged.
See table 1 for definitions of variables in first column and Appendix table A for definition of War combat variable. Adult respondents whose health deteriorated between PSID waves were no more likely than before to say their childhood health was not good or to cite additional childhood health problems Smith, b.
He shows that the productivity of those departments in Germany which lost a relatively high share of their professors was permanently lowered, while shocks to physical capital due to Allied bombing had returned to their old growth path by the s. More generally, to make up for investments in human capital takes years, while plants and factories can be repaired and replaced much more quickly.
In spite of deaths of large numbers of civilians in WWII, the existing evidence indicates that affected cities went back to old population growth paths in Western Germany and Japan Brakman et al. Most of the civilian deaths in WWI were due to famine and disease. The two countries most directly affected in terms of number of causalities were Japan and China. They find that the loss of schooling is about a fifth of a year compared to the following cohort.
They suggest that the mechanisms are closing down of religious schools, absence of teachers due to the war, absence of students due to escaping bombing, and actual destruction of schools.
She finds that destruction caused children to attain 0. Her estimates suggest that this schooling reduction is mainly due to physical destruction of schools and the absence of teachers. His suggested pathway is nutritional deprivation in utero. However, we include a different set of countries, and not all of them were equally strongly affected by WWII as Germany was.
These types of estimations are possible for a smaller set of countries. Van den Berg et al. For Germany, we collected data on monthly caloric rations in regions where respondents live. We see large drops in calories towards the end of the war and in occupation zones with the French and Soviet zone hit hardest. When we distinguish different age groups 0—4, 5—10, and 11—16 , we see strongest results for 0—4 group and impacts on adult depression.
This suggests that hunger analysis should not only be seen as operating through nutrition-related outcomes such as adult height, but also and equally through adult outcomes such as depression. Our effects on height are similar to Van den Berg et al. Iris Kesternich, University of Munich. Bettina Siflinger, University of Munich. Winter, University of Munich. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Author manuscript; available in PMC May Smith , and Joachim K. Iris Kesternich, University of Munich;. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe.
Table 1 Variable Definitions. Open in a separate window. Per Capita Income Growth If wars alter long-term economic growth, they would permanently depress economic prospects of future generations. Country UK. Mortality In , there were about 2 billion people in the world.
Measures of War Exposure To analyze long-term impacts of WWII on health and economic outcomes, we use the fact that different countries in Europe and different people in those counties were differentially affected by WWII at different points in time.
Some of the long-term effects of World War II were the division of Germany into two separate states, the destruction of numerous European and Asian cities, a major realignment of political power into Western and Soviet factions, the creation of the United Nations, a strengthening of corporate power and the beginning of a period of increased prosperity in the United States.
World War II had short-term and long-term effects. One short-term effect was it put an end to the threat posed by the aggressive actions of the governments of Germany, Italy, and Japan. These countries were invading other countries and taking over these lands.
Mar 01, · We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20, individuals in 13 European countries. The long-term effects of World War II were many, and as we discuss them, it is important to remember that the most important effect of the war was the over 50 million people, mostly civilians, who died during it. Long-term effects included the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as the world's two predominant superpowers.
I looked at all of the answers, and the one, most lasting, effect of World War II was not even mentioned! It was the doctrine of “Never Again!”, the doctrine of instant readiness, retaliation, and MAD. Before World War II countries had very small standing armies, and readiness for war was dependent on mobilization. World War IZi changed that. Well, peace could be considered easily one of the shortest-term effects of World War 2. From about on, there has been an almost constant state of conflict, somewhere on the globe.