Although medical experts are aware of a large number of parts and functions of the brain, some astounding new discoveries are made after short intervals. Researchers have highlighted the possibility that mirror neurons in human brain are responsible for development of human intelligence and therefore the civilization as we know it.
Due to mirror neurons, humans were able to communicate using gestures which evolved into languages. With the rise of languages, humans started to develop and share knowledge which was used for development of the society.
In light of the knowledge on human brain available to medical scientists, human brain can be divided into four main parts known as cerebral lobes, which are: The functions of frontal lobe include: Thus, frontal lobe performs all the tasks that contribute towards the intelligence of the individual.
These functions are extremely important as without these functions, an individual may not be able to think and therefore perform any of the day to day tasks. The parietal lobe is responsible for processing all the sensory information received by organs. The temporal lobe is responsible for controlling and retaining visual and auditory data in addition to language.
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He is the author of 15 books, and the former editor-in-chief of Psychology Today. Brought to you by curio. Edited by Pam Weintraub. Our shoddy thinking about the brain has deep historical roots, but the invention of computers in the s got us especially confused. For more than half a century now, psychologists, linguists, neuroscientists and other experts on human behaviour have been asserting that the human brain works like a computer.
Thanks to evolution, human neonates, like the newborns of all other mammalian species, enter the world prepared to interact with it effectively. It prefers the sound of voices to non-speech sounds, and can distinguish one basic speech sound from another. We are, without doubt, built to make social connections. A healthy newborn is also equipped with more than a dozen reflexes — ready-made reactions to certain stimuli that are important for its survival.
It turns its head in the direction of something that brushes its cheek and then sucks whatever enters its mouth. It holds its breath when submerged in water. It grasps things placed in its hands so strongly it can nearly support its own weight. Perhaps most important, newborns come equipped with powerful learning mechanisms that allow them to change rapidly so they can interact increasingly effectively with their world, even if that world is unlike the one their distant ancestors faced.
Senses, reflexes and learning mechanisms — this is what we start with, and it is quite a lot, when you think about it.
If we lacked any of these capabilities at birth, we would probably have trouble surviving. But here is what we are not born with: Computers do all of these things, but organisms do not. Computers, quite literally, process information — numbers, letters, words, formulas, images. Side by side, those three bytes form the word dog. Computers, quite literally, move these patterns from place to place in different physical storage areas etched into electronic components. Sometimes they also copy the patterns, and sometimes they transform them in various ways — say, when we are correcting errors in a manuscript or when we are touching up a photograph.
The rules computers follow for moving, copying and operating on these arrays of data are also stored inside the computer. Forgive me for this introduction to computing, but I need to be clear: They really store and retrieve. They really have physical memories.
They really are guided in everything they do, without exception, by algorithms. Humans, on the other hand, do not — never did, never will. I n his book In Our Own Image , the artificial intelligence expert George Zarkadakis describes six different metaphors people have employed over the past 2, years to try to explain human intelligence.
In the earliest one, eventually preserved in the Bible, humans were formed from clay or dirt, which an intelligent god then infused with its spirit. The hydraulic metaphor persisted for more than 1, years, handicapping medical practice all the while. In the s, the British philosopher Thomas Hobbes suggested that thinking arose from small mechanical motions in the brain. By the s, discoveries about electricity and chemistry led to new theories of human intelligence — again, largely metaphorical in nature.
In the mids, inspired by recent advances in communications, the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz compared the brain to a telegraph. Each metaphor reflected the most advanced thinking of the era that spawned it. Predictably, just a few years after the dawn of computer technology in the s, the brain was said to operate like a computer, with the role of physical hardware played by the brain itself and our thoughts serving as software. Miller proposed that the mental world could be studied rigorously using concepts from information theory, computation and linguistics.
Although he acknowledged that little was actually known about the role the brain played in human reasoning and memory, he drew parallel after parallel between the components of the computing machines of the day and the components of the human brain. Propelled by subsequent advances in both computer technology and brain research, an ambitious multidisciplinary effort to understand human intelligence gradually developed, firmly rooted in the idea that humans are, like computers, information processors.
This effort now involves thousands of researchers, consumes billions of dollars in funding, and has generated a vast literature consisting of both technical and mainstream articles and books.
The information processing IP metaphor of human intelligence now dominates human thinking, both on the street and in the sciences. There is virtually no form of discourse about intelligent human behaviour that proceeds without employing this metaphor, just as no form of discourse about intelligent human behaviour could proceed in certain eras and cultures without reference to a spirit or deity. And like all the metaphors that preceded it, it will certainly be cast aside at some point — either replaced by another metaphor or, in the end, replaced by actual knowledge.
They saw the problem. It encumbers our thinking with language and ideas that are so powerful we have trouble thinking around them. The faulty logic of the IP metaphor is easy enough to state. It is based on a faulty syllogism — one with two reasonable premises and a faulty conclusion.
Setting aside the formal language, the idea that humans must be information processors just because computers are information processors is just plain silly, and when, some day, the IP metaphor is finally abandoned, it will almost certainly be seen that way by historians, just as we now view the hydraulic and mechanical metaphors to be silly.
The brain is formed of two types of nervous tissue, Grey matter on the outer side and White matter on the inner side. The former is made of non-medullated nerve cells whereas the latter is formed of medullated nerve cells. The brain or encephalon is a white, bilaterally symmetrical structure.
The Brain and Meningitis - Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges’) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis has several causes including bacteria, chemical irritation, drug allergies and most commonly viruses.
The Human Brain Essay - The human brain is a vital part of life; however, many do not understand the significance of this complex organ. The human brain is like other parts of the body; it grows, gets stronger, weakens and dies. The cerebrum, also known as the cerebral cortex, is the biggest portion of the human brain, linked with higher brain functions such as action and thought. The cerebral cortex is partitioned into four segments, referred to as lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.
The Human Brain Essay Words | 5 Pages. The human brain is a big, intricate—yet delicate, structure in the human body. It is the key structure in cognitive function. Any damage to the brain does not only “erase” memories but also may “deceive” the brain to erroneously remember a new object as being familiar (). The human being is considered to be the ultimate form of life on the. This is not because the human body is strong and agile. Many other. animals posses skills much superior to humans and are able to perform feats. humans can only dream of. The one thing that distinguishes humans from all. of the 3/5(9).